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TREES AND SHRUBS
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PRUNING OVERGROWN PLUM TREES
Plum trees can survive well and produce large amounts of fruit even when not pruned for many years. Eventually though they will produce a tangled mass of branches and, if the rootstock is not dwarf, they can grow tall and large with fruit only on the top branches where they cannot easily be reached.
That's the time when action is required to free up the centre of the tree and get it producing fruit on the lower branches.
WHEN TO PRUNE YOUR OVERGROWN PLUM TREE?
The answer to that question is simple, prune your plum tree when it's growing strongly and for established plum trees early June to mid July is the best time. Do not prune it in winter /spring because the risk of fungal infection is high and don't prune it in autumn because the leaves are needed by the tree to transfer nutrients to it as they die.
THE PRINCIPLES BEHIND PRUNING ESTABLISHED PLUM TREES
Established plum trees are all very different in shape, size and structure which means that one set of absolute rules can't be applied to them all. However a set of basic easy to understand principles can be used to apply to almost all overgrown plum tree which amateur gardeners can use to guide them through the process.
We recommend that you take a four step approach before you even begin to prune an established plum tree. The reason for this is that although plum trees withstand neglect better than many fruit trees they can be put at risk from bacterial and other infections if you don't carry out pruning correctly. Incorrect pruning techniques are far more liable to damage the tree compared to lopping off the wrong branch using good pruning techniques. Those steps are:
- Have the correct tools. A sharp pair of secateurs can be used to cut
away smaller stems. For larger stems and branches use a pruning saw. If
you are pruning more than one tree, disinfect the tools between trees. One
measure of bleach to ten measures of water should be sufficient.
- Use a safe set of steps / ladder to reach branches higher up. If you
are not confident using a set of steps or ladder, get someone else to do
the job for you.
- Decide a means of getting rid of the pruned stems and branches. Often, the
sheer volume of branches and stems can be a problem, be sure you know
where they can be disposed of / burnt.
- Read our guidelines on pruning techniques for plum trees at the end of this page to help you inflict the least possible damage possible on your plum tree when you prune it. This is especially important if you plan to remove any sizeable branches.
Now read through the guidelines below, then go outside and take a good, long look at your plum tree. Decide how best you think it can be pruned and then come back and read through the guidelines again before doing any of the pruning. The basic principles are:
- If significant pruning is required spread it over two or three
- Remove dead, damaged and diseased branches (the three Ds) first.
They contribute nothing to healthy growth of the tree and are sites for
bacterial and fungal infections to enter. You need to cut back to good,
clean and healthy wood, anything less is pointless.
- Prune away any crossing branches. If they rub together the bark will
be damaged and infections will enter the wood.
- Thin out the centre of the tree. Ideally, the main stem should have
three (maximum four) main branches coming from it and they should spread
outwards not inwards. If you have more than this then reduce the number
to three or four. This may involve cutting away a couple of large
branches but in the end it's for the best. Remove some side branches
/ stems which grow in the centre of the tree.
- When pruning at this stage, try to maintain the "balance" of the
tree. By this we mean keep the major branches spaced roughly evenly
around the tree. This is sometimes difficult to achieve but just do your
best. The tree will, of its own accord, balance its own growth out over
a year or so.
- Prune lower branches so that main stems and branches which turn
downwards are cut to be at least parallel with ground, preferably
growing upwards and outwards.
- If the tree is excessively tall, prune a third of the height to bring fruit production lower down.
This section explains how to prune a branch, the same rules apply to plum trees and other fruit trees. The principle is to avoid damaging the collar of the branch and to make a clean cut which doesn't tear the bark. The picture below illustrates the three steps.
Cut a notch about 3cm deep into the underside of the branch. This will stop the branch tearing under the weight of the branch as you make cut 2.
Cut downwards (in the direction of the arrow) through the branch trying to support it as you cut.
The final cut should be made as near to the collar of the branch without cutting into the collar.
PRUNING WATER SPROUTS
Water sprouts are quick growing shoots which grow straight upwards. They often appear on a plum tree when it has been hard pruned the previous year. They will not produce plums and simply sap the strength of the tree for no real purpose. If allowed to grow unpruned they will quickly block out light and reduce beneficial air circulation in the centre of the tree.
Prune them as close to the main branch / trunk as possible using a sharp pair of secateurs. If you keep on top of this task they will stop growing after a few months. Do this when the plum tree is in full growth, any time from early June to early August. It is best done on a dry dry to reduce the risk of infection.
COMMENTS / QUESTIONS LEFT BY OUR READERS
|2 October 2016||From: Neil|
|QUESTION: Can I prune my 10 year old plum tree
in October after collecting the fruit? Its getting out of hand.|
ANSWER: You can prune it in October but you run the real risk of infections entering the wood where the pruning cuts are made. Our advice is to leave it until June next year.
|24 July 2016||From: Penny|
|QUESTION: What do I do with the water shoots that are coming all over after a major prune 2 years ago? Victoria tree, probably 15yrs +, was in a very bad state, which luckily didn't get silver leaf though cut right out of season by 'experienced' fruit tree pruner, it has good plums forming.
ANSWER: I have added a couple of paragraphs in the main article above about pruning water sprouts (see here). In all fairness to your "experienced" tree pruner, the tree may have been in such a bad condition that he judged it best to prune it out of season rather than wait until the correct time of year. If there is a danger of a branch breaking of its own accord it can be best to prune cleanly on a dry day immediately.
|18 July 2016||From: Dan Lane|
|QUESTION: In the US we should prune in June/July also?
ANSWER: The US has larger weather fluctuations compared to the UK so I can't say definitely without knowing the town / city you live in. However, the principle behind the timing of the pruning is to do it when the plum tree is growing vigorously.
|21 March 2015||From: Gill|
|Thank you for such straightforward, easy-to-understand guidance.
Can't wait to get on with the job in June.
|09 September 2014||From: Frances Grieve|
|Very helpful advice. This has given me the confidence to prune
in early June next year.
|06 September 2014||From: Debbie|
|Great advice, I've been looking for some straightforward, easy to understand instructions for years! Thank you.
|31 August 2014||From: B. W. Broad|
|Good sound advice on how to prune plum trees
|August 2014||From: Lots of people|
|Lots of people are asking can they prune they their plum tree
in August. My advice is don't do it for two reasons. First you open up
the tree to fungal and bacterial infections. The best time for pruning to avoid
this danger is in early summer. Late May to early July.
The second reason is that significant pruning in August and September will, as always, result in leaf loss. This means the tree does not get the opportunity to absorb nutrients from the leaves before they fall off in autumn.